Review
Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities

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open access

Abstract

This review is provided a detailed overview of the synthesis, properties and applications of nanoparticles (NPs) exist in different forms. NPs are tiny materials having size ranges from 1 to 100?nm. They can be classified into different classes based on their properties, shapes or sizes. The different groups include fullerenes, metal NPs, ceramic NPs, and polymeric NPs. NPs possess unique physical and chemical properties due to their high surface area and nanoscale size. Their optical properties are reported to be dependent on the size, which imparts different colors due to absorption in the visible region. Their reactivity, toughness and other properties are also dependent on their unique size, shape and structure. Due to these characteristics, they are suitable candidates for various commercial and domestic applications, which include catalysis, imaging, medical applications, energy-based research, and environmental applications. Heavy metal NPs of lead, mercury and tin are reported to be so rigid and stable that their degradation is not easily achievable, which can lead to many environmental toxicities.

Keywords

Nanoparticles
Fullerenes
Optical
Plasmonic
Toxicity

Abbreviations

NPs
nanoparticles
FESEM
field emission scanning electron microscopy
TEM
transmittance electron microscopy
XPS
X-ray photon spectroscopy
XRD
X-ray diffraction
DRS
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy
FT-IR
Fourier transform infrared
SERS
surface enhanced raman spectroscopy
PL
photoluminescence
MA-SiO2
methacrylate-functionalized silica
TMD-NDs
transition-metal dichalcogenide nanodots
PNP
polymer nanoparticle
CNTs
carbon nanotubes
LSPR
localized surface plasmon resonance
CVD
chemical vapor deposition
PVD
physical vapor deposition
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
POM
polyoxometalates
LDL
low density lipoprotein
MOFs
metal organic frameworks
PEG
polyethylene glycol
BET
Brunauer–Emmett–Teller
MMT
Montmorillonite
PEO
polyethylene oxide (PEO)
PLA
polylactic acid
RET
resonant energy transfer
PEC
photoelectrochemical

Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.

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